The distribution box or, in other words, the apartment switchboard is the place where the reception and distribution of the electric power supplying the electrical system of the house is carried out. It contains all the control and protective equipment of the power grid.
When replacing the old wiring, you will also need to replace the switchboard with a more modern one, which will correspond to new technical tasks. Now produce switchboards, where traditional traffic jams are no longer used, and power supply protection devices are mounted on a standard DIN rail.
All “fuses”, called circuit breakers, have the same base size, corresponding to a module width of 17.5 mm. The number of circuit breakers that can be placed in one panel determines the number of lines to energy consumers.
When choosing a cable section, you should take into account a certain margin, allowing you to connect additional devices to this line in the future. The power grid of the house should be divided into lines supplying individual energy consumers (high power consumers: a pump, an electric cooker) or their groups (sockets, lighting).
Each of the lines must have a separate circuit breaker. And the entire power grid must be protected by an incoming circuit breaker, in accordance with the technical conditions and project documentation. These devices are placed in the electrical panel. The distribution box is rather flat, so it can be placed even in a small room. The most convenient way to put it at the front door. Such an arrangement will help turn off the power, for example, in the event of a fire.
All cable lines of the house are connected to the switchboard through a circuit breaker of the required rating (in accordance with the calculated load and cable section). The electrical panel also provides for the installation of equipment protection equipment. Some devices protect equipment that is especially sensitive to voltage surges, while others protect residents from electric shock.
It is important to know! Replacing an old switchboard sometimes requires remove the seal from the electricity meter. It is necessary to inform the local energy company of this need, specifying the period for which the work will be carried out. As a rule, these works are given up to 10 days. After replacement, you must declare your readiness to seal the meter.
When switching off the switchboard, they take into account the fact that at three-phase voltage it is necessary to evenly distribute the load on each phase. For example, it is impossible to connect all the sockets on one phase, and leave the other only for lighting.